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Volume 5, 1863 November 9–1864 August 10

A Guide to the Robert Knox Sneden Diary
Volume 5, 1863 November 9–1864 August 10
Mss5:1 Sn237:1 v. 5

Volume 5 of Sneden's diary covers the period of the Civil War from the Mine Run Campaign of November 1863 to the trial and execution of the Andersonville "Raiders" in July 1864.

Part I (1863 November 9–December 21; pp. 1–191) concerns the Mine Run Campaign of November 1863, the battles of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge, Tenn., Sneden's capture on 27 November near Brandy Station, Va., by Mosby's Rangers (i.e., the 43rd Virginia Cavalry Battalion), his subsequent journey to Richmond, Va., and incarceration at Crew & Pemberton's Prison, and descriptions of Libby Prison and Belle Isle, Richmond.

Part II (1863 December 12–February 28; pp. 192–385) concerns Sneden's descriptions of Richmond, life as a prisoner of war, the escape attempt by Union prisoners from Libby Prison, the battle of Olustee, Fla., and Sneden's journey from Richmond to Anderson Station, Ga. (including a description of the military prison at Salisbury, N.C.).

Part III (1864 February 28–May 31; pp. 386–549) concerns a detailed description of life as a prisoner of war at Andersonville Prison, the Dahlgren-Kilpatrick cavalry raid on Richmond, and the battle of Plymouth, N.C.

Part IV (1864 June 16–August 10; pp. 550–720) concerns Sneden's Andersonville Prison experiences, the Bermuda Hundred Campaign (including the battle of Drewry's Bluff), and the trial and execution of the Andersonville "Raiders" in July.

List of Illustrations

*In the publications column, EOS refers to Eye of the Storm (2000) and IFS refers to Images From the Storm (2001).

• Copies of these illustrations may be ordered from the Photographic and Digital Reproductions page

Vol Page Image Title or Text Description Publications*
5 1 Vol. 5. Army Diary of the War of the Rebellion. By R. K. Sneden of 40th A.V. Vols. (Mozart Regt.) And Topographical Engineer of 3rd Army Corps, U.S.A. Title page and table of contents.  
5 2 Badge of the Army of the Potomac    
5 4 The Flag of Truce Illustration of two officers on horseback holding white flags.  
5 5 Gen. Russell A. Alger of Michigan, AD 1890. Russell Alexander Alger (1836-1907), Union general; Commander of the Grand Army of the Republic (G.A.R.)  
5 6 Rebel Signal Station near Beverley [sic] Ford Battle of Brandy Station, Va., 9 June 1863.  
5 8 View of the Old Rebel Battery on Allen's Plantation, Jamestown, Va., 1863.    
5 9 Culpepper [sic] Court House, Virginia. Battle of Brandy Station, Va., 9 June 1863. Sketch dated November 1863.  
5 10 Germania [sic] Ford. Rapidan River, Virginia. 1863. Mine Run Campaign, Va., 26 November-1 December 1863. Gen. George Gordon Meade (1815-1872) crossed the Rapidan River at Germanna Ford, Va. Illustration shows Union troups and supply wagons. IFS, p. 181
5 11 Jericho Mills. Rapidan River, Virginia. Novr. 1863. Mine Run Campaign, Va., 26 November-1 December 1863.  
5 12 Head Quarters of Gen. G. Meade, U.S.A., near Brandy Station, Virginia, Novr. 1863. Mine Run Campaign, Va., 26 November-1 December 1863. IFS, p. 182
5 13 Head Quarters of Genl. Meade, Near Culpeper C. H., Virginia. Novr. 1863 Mine Run Campaign, 26 November-1 December 1863.  
5 14 "THE SHEBANG" - Quarters of the U.S. Sanitary Commission, Brandy Station, Va.   EOS, p. 146; IFS, p. 187
5 15 Kearny Cross or The Birney Medal. Given to officers and men of the 3rd Corps for bravery - 1863. Named for Union generals Philip Kearny (1814-1862) and David Bell Birney (1825-1864). Kearny was the original commander of the II Corps, Army of the Potomac; Birney was his successor.  
5 16 Abraham Lincoln, 1863.    
5 18 [U.S.] Army Badges in 1863. I through XXV corps, plus Engineer Corps, Signal Corps, and "Colored Troops"  
5 19 The General Post Office. Brandy Station, Va., Novr. 1863. The "post office" is a tent with its sign nailed to a tree. IFS, p. 179
5 20 Map of the Field of Operations in Virginia and Battle of Mine Run during November 1863. Mine Run Campaign, 26 November-1 December 1863. IFS, p. 184
5 21 View of Culpepper [sic] Court House, Virginia, 1863.   EOS, p. 144
5 22 Head Quarters of 3rd Corps. Maj. Gen'l. French, at Miller's House, Brandy Station, Va., Novr. 26, 1863. William Henry Frency (1815-1881), Union general in command of the III Corps. Mine Run Campaign, 26 November-1 December 1863.  
5 23 Plan of the Battle of Kelly's Ford, Va. [map] Fought 7th November 1863.  
5 24 Map of the Field of Operations, November 1863 Covers the area around the Rapidan and Rappahanock rivers, Virginia. Mine Run Campaign, 26 November-1 December 1863.  
5 25 Genl. Meade's Campaign on the Rappahannock. November 1863. 3rd Corps Heaquarters (at) Brandy Station, Virginia. Chapter title page.  
5 44 Camp of the Military Telegraph Corps at Brandy Station, Virginia, Novr. 1863. Capt. Thomas Eckert, Supt. Thomas Thompson Eckert (b. 1825). IFS, p. 187
5 45 Jericho Mills, and Ford, on the Rapidan River, Virginia Mine Run Campaign, 26 November-1 December 1863. IFS, p. 178
5 49 Chattanooga [Tenn.], from Point Lookout, Lookout Mountain. As it appeared during the rebellion. Chattanooga Campaign, October-November 1863.  
5 50 Chattanooga [Tenn.], from the North.    
5 52 Miller's House, Brandy Station, Virginia, Head Quarters of Maj. Genl. French commanding 3rd Corps. November 26, [1863] Mine Run Campaign, 26 November-1 December 1863. IFS, p. 188
5 53 Miller's House, Brandy Station, Virginia, near Culpepper [sic]. Novr. 26th 1863. Shows Orange and Alexandria Railroad Bridge, quarters of generals Meade and Birney  
5 66 Captured    
5 67 Passing the Guard    
5 68 Rebel Works of Rappahannock Station, Va., after their capture by the 6th Corps, Novr. 7, 1863. Battle of Rappahannock Station, Va., 7 November 1863.  
5 69 Kelly's Ford and Mill, Rappahannock River, Va. Captured by 3rd Corps, Novr. 7, 1863. Shows rebel batteries, store, Kelly house and grist mill, factory, and river. Battle of Kelly's Ford, Va., 7 November 1863.  
5 70 Crest of Missionary Ridge [Tenn.], Bragg's Headquarters. Braxton Bragg (1817-1876), commander of the Confederate Army of Tennessee. Chattanooga Campaign, October-November 1863.  
5 71 General Hooker, the Hero of Lookout Mountain. Joseph Hooker (1814-1879), commander of the XX Corps, Army of the Cumberland.  
5 72 The Battle of Lookout Mountain, Tennessee. Fought November 24th 1863, and Battle of Missionary Ridge, 25th Novr. [insets] Devil's Pulpit on Lookout Mountain / Maj-Gen'l. Hooker Chapter title page.  
5 73 United States Military Bridge, Cameson Hill and Lookout Mountain.    
5 82 Battle of Lookout Mountain, Tennessee Fought 24th November 1863  
5 83 Union Intrenchments [sic] in Front of Chattanooga occupied by 3 Divisions of Thomas' Corps. George Henry Thomas (1816-1870), Union general. Illustration shows camp of 24th Ohio Infantry; Lookout Mountain; Fort Grose; Fort Negley; and camp of the 36th Indiana Infantry  
5 86 Rebel Works on side of Lookout Mountain, November 29th 1863. Taken by the 11th Corps under Hooker.    
5 87 Rebel Works at The White House, Lookout Mountain, November 29, 1863. The White House was also known as Craven's Farm; scene of the "Battle above the Clouds," 24th November 1863.  
5 88 Signal Rock, Lookout Mountain, where General Bragg stood directing the battle. Battle of Lookout Mountain, Tenn., 24th November 1863.  
5 89 The "Palisades" of Lookout Mountain.    
5 90 Ruins of the White House, Lookout Mountain.    
5 91 Gen'l. John A. Logan. John Alexander Logan (1826-1886), Union general.  
5 92 Hooker's Position in Lookout Valley    
5 101 The Battle [map]. Battle of Lookout Mountain, Tenn., 24th November 1863.  
5 105 House of Chief Ross. Rossville, Tn. John Ross was a Cherokee chief who organized an Indian regiment for the Confederacy.  
5 106 Brandy Station, Orange and Alexandria Rail Road, Virginia. Novr. 1863.   IFS, p. 186
5 107 Bealton Station. Orange and Alexandria Rail Road, Virginia. Novr. 1863.    
5 109 Head Qrs. of Genl. French 3rd Corps A.P., at Miller's House, Brandy Station, Virginia, Novr. 26th 1863.   IFS, p. 189
5 128 Map showing route taken by Mosby with prisoners, Novr. 27-28th 1863. R. K. Sneden was captured at Brandy Station, Va., 27 November 1863, by Mosby's Rangers. Map shows route to Rappahannock Court House, Madison Court House, Orange Court House, and Gordonsville. EOS, p. 154
5 168 Crewe & Pemberton Prison. Carey [sic] [Cary] St. near Basin St., Richmond, Va. Includes empty lot in front of Libby Prison and Church Hill. EOS, p. 165
5 169 "Castle Thunder,"19th & Carey [Cary] Sts. Richmond, Va.   EOS, p. 163
5 170 The Rebel Prison on Belle Island, James River, Richmond, Va., Novr. 1863.    
5 171 Prison on Belle Island Also shows Mayo's Bridge and Rocketts IFS, p. 190
5 177 Rebel Guerrillas capturing Army wagons.    
5 179 Rebels bringing new prisoners into 'Libby' by night. Libby Prison, Richmond, Va.  
5 195 "Belle Island" In the James River. Richmond, Va. Looking south  
5 196 Rear of Rebel Redoubt, Belle Island [James River, Richmond, Va.].    
5 197 Lower end of Belle Island showing bridge to the Tredeger Works.    
5 239 Oldest House in Richmond: Washington's HQ The Old Stone House, now the Poe Museum.  
5 240 Plan of Part of Richmond, Virginia, showing locations of Rebel Prisons, &c. Winter of 1863.   EOS, p. 164; IFS, p. 191
5 241 Libby Prison, Carey [sic] [Cary] Street, Richmond, Va.   EOS, p. 169; IFS, p. 196
5 258 View of Scott's Prison, Main Street, Richmond, Va. Occupied by Prisoners from Belle Island, Decr. 1863.   EOS, p. 183; IFS, p. 197
5 259 View of Richmond & Petersburg Rail Road Bridge crossing the James River and the Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, Va. February 1864.   IFS, p. 197
5 283 Confederate $100 bill    
5 284 Confederate $50 bill    
5 285 Confederate $5    
5 286 Facsimile of $1 Bill, North Carolina / [Facsimile] One half of a $3 Bill. Printed over the face of the one dollar bill.    
5 287 Camp of Union Prisoners of War on Belle Island, James River, opposite Richmond, Va., 1863.   EOS, p. 170
5 288 Neal Dow, Ex-Mayor of Portland, Maine, ca. 1902. Dow was imprisoned at Libby Prison, Richmond, Va.  
5 289 Jefferson Davis, President, C.S.A.    
5 290 Custom-House, where the Confederate Congress met. Richmond, Va.  
5 291 Half of a 4 Dollar Bill of North Carolina. Printed on the face of a One Dollar Bill.    
5 292 A Genuine Rebel Pass.    
5 311 Plan of the Tunnel and Vicinity. Map of an escape tunnel from Libby Brison, Richmond, Va.; shows other prisons, canal and dock, and railroad depot at Rocketts.  
5 322 Old St. John's Church. Church Hill. Building erected A.D. 1701 Richmond, Virginia. Sketched 1865 "This Church could be seen from the windows of the Crew & Pemberton Prison." IFS, p. 190
5 323 Map of Richmond, Virginia. A.D. 1863 Shows locations of Confederate prisons. IFS, p. 192
5 326 [Map of the border of Georgia and Florida]. Battle of Olustee, Fla., 20th February 1864.  
5 336 "White House" of the Confederacy Residence of Jefferson Davis, 1201 East Clay Street, Richmond, Va.  
5 337 St. John's Church, Where Patrick Henry made his Great Speech. Richmond, Va.  
5 338 Libby Prison (from Scotts Building) / Castle Thunder, Richmond, Va. / Crew and Pemberton Prison, Richmond, Va.   IFS, p. 195
5 339 Map of Defences [sic] of Richmond, Va., April 1865.    
5 341 Richmond, Va. 1863.    
5 342 Rebels robbing Union Prisoners.    
5 344 Salisbury Prison, N.C. (Old Cotton Factory).    
5 345 Washington Monument and The Capitol, Richmond, Virginia.    
5 347 Columbia, S.C.    
5 348 [Map showing route taken by prisoners of war from Richmond, Va., to Charlotte, N.C., and Andersonville, Ga. February 1865].    
5 360 Map of route taken by U.S. prisoners of war Charlotte, N.C., to Andersonville, Georgia, February 1864.    
5 361B Rebel Prison at Salisbury, N.C. ... Feby. 25th 1864.   EOS, p. 197; IFS, p. 200
5 362 [Confederate - N.C. 10¢ bill]    
5 364 U.S. Prisoners of War Crossing the PeDee [sic] [Pee Dee] River, N.C., on platform cars, Febr. 24, 1863 [i.e., 1864] Shows railroad bridge and train  
5 365 Union Prisoners of War crossing the Roanoke River near Gaston, N.C. Febr. 23rd 1864. Shows train and fortified railroad bridge. IFS, p. 199
5 384 Demon of Andersonville, Capt. Henry Wirz, Jailor, C.S.A. Henry Wirz (d. 1865), Swiss-born Confederate officer, commandant of Camp Sumter prison (a.k.a. Andersonville), Sumter County, Ga. Wirz was executed by the Federal government for his part in permitting Andersonville's horrific conditions. IFS, p. 212
5 385 Andersonville Prison, [Ga.]. The Chain Gang    
5 387 Gen'l. J. E. Johnston, C.S.A. Joseph Eggleston Johnston (1807-1891), commander of the Confederate Army of Tennessee.  
5 388 Union Prisoners of War crossing the Molveria [i.e., Meherrin] River at Lawrenceville, Virginia., on platform cars. February 23rd 1864. Shows railroad bridge, train, and view of town of Lawrenceville IFS, p. 388
5 389 Map showing route taken by U.S. prisoners of War, Feby. 1864 when sent from Richmond, Va., to Andersonville, Georgia. Map shows parts of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia IFS, p. 201
5 399 Plan of the Prison March 1st 1864. Andersonville Prison, Ga.  
5 414 "South Gate,"Andersonville Prison, Georgia. View from the outside EOS, p. 203; IFS, p. 202
5 415 View of R. K. Sneden's shanty at Andersonville Prison, Georgia, July 1864.   IFS, p. 203
5 428 Large and small ovens. Used for food preparation at Andersonville Prison, Ga. IFS, p. 206
5 429 The Mode in which Shanties and Shelters were built. Prisoner housing, Andersonville Prison, Ga. IFS, p. 204
5 442 A Barber's Shop Andersonville Prison, Ga. IFS, p. 206
5 450 "Camp Sumter," or Andersonville Prison. Sumter County, Georgia. 31st March 1864. Chapter title page.  
5 451 Plan of Andersonville Prison, or "Camp Sumter." April 1864.    
5 494 The Battle of Plymouth, Albemarle Sound, North Carolina. Fought April 17-20, 1864 / The Ram "Albemarle" Chapter title page with illustration of the Albemarle  
5 495 The Rebel Ram "Albemarle" sinking the U.S. Steamboat "Southfield" off Plymouth, N.C. The Albemarle sank the Southfield on 19 April 1864, which contributed to the Confederate's capture of Plymouth, N.C. IFS, p. 207
5 507 Wreck of the Albemarle near Plymouth [N.C.] The Albemarle was sunk on 27 October 1864 by a torpedo attached to a spar.  
5 508 Andersonville Prison, Georgia, or Camp Sumter. May 1864. Chapter title page.  
5 514 The Cookhouse, as seen from over the Stockade. Andersonville Prison, Ga. EOS, p. 219; IFS, p. 208
5 515 View in Andersonville Prison: View looking South from the Swamp, April 1864.   EOS, p. 206
5 545 Watchmaker's Shanty. Andersonville Prison, Ga. IFS, p. 212
5 546 Camp Sumter, of Andersonville Prison, Georgia. June 1864.    
5 560 [Revised] Plan of Andersonville Prison, Sumter Co., Georgia. Revised August 1864. EOS, p. 250; IFS, p. 216
5 561 Huts in the Andersonville Prison Pen. Andersonville Prison, Ga.  
5 562 [American Mining Company Stock Certificate]. Value is 10 shares in the Derby Mine.  
5 564 Sketch made May 10, 1864 of R. K. Sneden's Shanty and surroundings, Anderson Prison, Geo. [sic] [Ga.].    
5 565 Bogus Money - $100 greenback. Bogus money take by the Rebel Guard at Andersonville for $100 real U.S. currency.  
5 566 Crawling to the Swamp for water. Andersonville Prison, Ga. Shows two prisoners in wretched condition, one carrying his cup in his mouth.  
5 567 R. K. Sneden's Shanty, Andersonville, Geo. [sic] [Ga.]. April [1864].    
5 584 The Army of the James under Genls. Butler & Gillmore attack Petersburg and Fort Darling at Drewry's Bluff, Va. May 1864. Chapter title page. Battle of Drewry's Bluff, Va., 4-16 May 1864.  
5 585 Map of Operations at Bermuda Hundreds [!] and Drewry's Bluff, Virginia, May 1864 Battle of Drewry's Bluff, Va., 4-16 May 1864.  
5 606 Andersonville Prison, Georgia, in July 1864. Shows the entire stockade.  
5 607 Andersonsville Prison in July 1864. "The South Side" showing Fort and Wirz's Headquarters.   IFS, p. 210-211
5 608 The Cookhouse outside the Stockade. Andersonville Prison, Georgia. August 1864   IFS, p. 208
5 609 Hut for Bloodhounds, outside the stockade. Andersonville Prison, Georgia   IFS, p. 213
5 610 "Camp Sumter" or, Andersonville Prison, Georgia, July 1864. Chapter title page.  
5 634 Seizure of the Raiders in Prison. Then Trial and Execution by the Prisoners. July 3d-11th 1864. Chapter title page. The Raiders were a gang of prisoners who preyed on weaker prisoners. Commandant Wirz allowed them to be tried and executed by a jury of their peers.  
5 653 The Dead Line Andersonville Prison, Georgia The "dead line" was the point past which no prisoner was allowed, so that they would have no access to the stockade walls and be in sight at all times. Illustration of a prisoner shot by guards for taking part of the dead line as firewood. EOS, p. 221; IFS, p. 209
5 664 Hanging of the Raiders, Tuesday July 11th 1864 : 2 to 5 P.M. Chapter title page.  
5 666 The Gallows Andersonville Prison, Ga. IFS, p. 213
5 667 Hanging of the Raiders, 11th July 1864 at Andersonville Prison, Georgia. From the North Side.   EOS, p. 246; IFS, p. 214-215
5 695 One of the Rebel passes used. Forged pass used by Sneden.  
5 698 Andersonville Prison, Georgia. August 1864. Chapter title page.  
5 704 J. Everett Alder Photograph of Alder, 1st Sergeant [sic] of Col. E, 4th Vermont Vols. VI Corps, Army of the Potomac.  
5 710 Union Prisoners of War. Andersonville Prison Pen. Andersonville Prison, Ga.  
5 712 The Chain Gang, Andersonville Prison. Andersonville Prison, Ga.  
5 713 Russian Bloodhound "Hero" kept at "Castle Thunder" (Rebel Prison) Richmond, Va. Castle Thunder Prison, Richmond, Va. IFS, p. 196
5 714 Bogus Confederate Money. Circulated in Rebel Prisons in 1864.    
5 716 R. K. Sneden's Shanty at Andersonville Prison, Georgia. Sketched May 10, 1864.   IFS, p. 205
5 717 View of Andersonville Prison, Georgia, from Capt. Wirz's Headquarters at the Fort, Sept. 17, 1864.   IFS, p. 217
5 718 [Confederate $100 bill]    
5 719 Battle and Sinking of the "Alabama," C.S. Navy. Privateer Rebel Blockade Runner, by "Kearsarge" off Bologne, France. The Alabama was sunk by the U.S.S. Kearsarge 19 June 1864 off the coast of Cherbourg, France.  
5 720 View of Interior of Andersonville Prison, showing Wirz's Headquarters in Fort outside, Bakery, R. R. Depot, etc,. etc., Sept. 1864.   IFS, p. 218-219