"In the Beginning, all America was Virginia."
William Byrd II
Next event
Featured Promotion

Learn more about items related to commencement exercises in the VHS collections.

Van de Vyver Institute Diploma
Tickets still available for Southern Treasures event with @KenFarmerVA on Sept 6 at VaHistorical #vaantiques t.co/9zsbROxswz

H. A. White & Co. - Hutchison

H. A. White & Co., Warrenton, records, 1852–1867. 6 vols. Mss5:3W5868:4–9.
Concern a major mercantile operation conducted by Hamden A. White in Warrenton, with customers in that town and the surrounding area of Fauquier County. Along with journals and ledgers, some loose papers include a bond, 1852, to Dr. Thomas T. Withers for the hire of Ellen, an African American slave, and her child, signed by Thomas B. Finks and D. M. Patten.

Hairston, George Stovall (1813–1863), commonplace book, 1835–1864. [4], 31, [25] p. Mss5:5H1277:1.
Contains lists of slaves with year dates of birth in Henry County, kept by physician and planter George Stovall Hairston.

[Hall, Nancy Johns Turner (1792–1850)], "The Imaginationist, or Recollections of an Old Lady," 1844. 4 vols. Mss5:9H1405:1.
Attributed to Nancy Johns Turner Hall (of Bedford County), who later settled in Ohio. Includes information on slavery and the African American colonization movement.

Hall, William, deed, 1812. 1 p. Mss2H1497a1. Photocopy.
Deed, 13 June 1812, of William Hall of Fairfax County to John Arnold of King George County for the girl Suckey.

Hallett, Benjamin Franklin (1797–1862), letter, 1856. 1 p. Mss2H1542a1. Printed.
Circular letter, 29 October 1856, Boston, Mass., to Robert William Hughes, William Anderson Patteson, and William Foushee Ritchee, denouncing abolitionists, Free Soilers, and northern Whig and unionist parties.

Hamilton family papers, 1798–1990. 450 items. Mss1H1805c.
Concern the Hamilton, Vandergrift, and Withers families of Gloucester County. Section 17 contains a letter, 1816, from Robert Tayler (of Norfolk) to Charles Barrett concerning the purchase by a free man, Robert, of his enslaved child, owned by Barnett, if she is willing to go with her parent.

Hankins family papers, 1791–1975. 1,472 items. Mss1H1946b.
Concern the family of John Henry Hankins (1804–1870) and his wife, Louisiana (Wilson) Hankins (1819–1865), of Bacon’s Castle, Surry County. Include materials, 1837–1839, concerning settlement of the estate of William Jordan Boykin (d. 1823) by John Henry Hankins, which include an unexecuted bond of Robert W. Gibbs and Robert Gibbs concerning the hiring of an African American slave (section 3); financial records, 1853–1870, of Hankins, in part concerning the hiring out of two of his enslaved bricklayers in 1858 (section 5); and records compiled by Hankins in 1868–1870 concerning the settlement of the estates of James Wilson and Eliza M. (Ricks) Wilson, which include an inventory of property divided among the heirs of James Wilson, among which are African American slaves (section 6). Also, include correspondence, 1860–1864, of James DeWitt Hankins (1841–1866) with family members, primarily while serving in the Surry Light Artillery of the Confederate States Army and in part concerning the family’s runaway slaves and Isaac, a servant with Hankins in the army (section 10). Also, include letters, 1858–1865, written to Virginia Wilson Hankins (1843–1888) by her parents while she was a student, concerning in part slaves at Bacon’s Castle and runaways to the Union Army (section 13); and letters written to Mary (Hankins) Fontaine (1863–1921), 1889–1900, by Paulina Boone, an African American woman who served as a nurse to the Hankins children of Bacon’s Castle (section 21).

Hannah family papers, 1760–1967. 4,721 items. Mss1H1956a. Microfilm reels C400–407.
Much of the Hannah family collection revolves around George Cunningham Hannah (1782?–1870) of Gravel Hill plantation in Charlotte County.

A slave register of births, organized by mother's name at the top of each page, lists children and dates of birth (section 9). Thirteen families are included; birthdates range from 1800 to 1851. In sections 10, 11, and 12, account books make scattered references to hirings and agricultural operations.

In section 24, an 1813 apprenticeship indenture binds John Smith's four sons to George Hannah to learn the carpentry trade. Also in section 24 is a deed in which the slave woman Abba and her three children are released to George Hannah. More deeds appear in section 39, in which William Hannah and Quin Morton convey ten slaves to George Hannah. An 1827 summons to the Charlotte County jailer (section 27) refers to Major, the slave of Jacob Brooks of Campbell County. Section 83 contains an 1861 receipt of Elizabeth Henderson of Greenville, Ga., to E. T. Cunningham and John Cunningham for three men, three women, and three children, warranting that they are slaves for life and sound in mind and body.

In George Hannah's correspondence (section 33) is a letter from John Field enclosing information and deposition interrogatives for the 1848 case of David Young, an Arkansas man suing for his freedom, whose mother, Maria Young, was still in Virginia. Section 42 contains a January 1865 appointment of George Hannah as a commissioner with the authority to conscript slaves to provide labor for building fortifications. Freedmen's contracts appear in section 41 and state annual wages and weekly rations, with family wages designated individually and collectively. Arrangement for houses and firewood are provided in the agreements. Another agreement is in section 44—William's 1866 contract with Thomas McKinney.

Hanover County, assessor, tax book, 1780. 77 pp. Mss4H1973a2.
This volume records lists of tithables as made by the tax assessor for the year 1780. Included is St. Paul's Parish and St. Martin's Parish. Owners were assessed by the number of slaves; only number and tax assessment are recorded in this volume. A later entry (pages 67–68) in the book records amounts of corn processed by African Americans.

Harberts, C., deed, 1858. 1 p. Mss2H2135a1.
Deed, 24 February 1858, recorded in Caldwell County, Tex., to G. W. Miller for the slave Easau, age thirty, in exchange for Hagah, a slave woman.

Hardaway, Richard Eggleston (1796–1830), account book, 1825–1864. 136 pp. Mss5:3H2164:1.
The first few pages record the accounts of Hardaway's blacksmith shop in Nottoway County from 1825 to 1830. The second part of the book begins at page 16, on which is written an index to the names of the slaves whose accounts appear in the larger second part of the book. That second section was kept by John Segar Eggleston for recording his slaves' accounts from 1850 to 1864. The accounts are primarily concerned with fodder, corn, coffee, sugar, and shoes.

Hargroves, Abigail (Langley) Granbery (d. 1763), commonplace book, 1694–1818. 57 pp. Mss5:5H2244:1.
A photocopied transcript accompanies the original volume, kept by Abigail Hargroves in Nansemond and Norfolk counties. On page 16 (transcript page 5), she notes that in 1733 the court ruled the young slave Sambo to be eight years old. Later, on page 42, Hargroves records a list of her slaves' birthdates from 1745 to 1761.

Harris, Uriah, list, 1858. 1 p. Mss2H2442a1.
This 1858 list of property of the estate of Uriah Harris of Louisa County records twelve slaves, their prices, and to whom sold, including a mother-child pair.

Harris family papers, 1805–1907. 174 items. Mss1H2445b.
William Robert Harris (b. 1822) of Gloucester County participated in the fishing and oystering industry. Among his papers are a number of bonds for hiring slaves. These bonds appear in section 1, except for an 1848 bond in section 7. Generally, each year from 1848 to 1856 Harris would hire a woman for $10–$15 dollars with the usual arrangement of providing clothes, blanket, and sometimes shoes. Section 1 also contains tax receipts on slaves for 1848, 1849, and 1856.

Harrison, Jesse Burton (1805–1841), papers, 1822–1839. 76 items. Mss2H24684d.
Collection contains a letter, 1839, to Harrison (of Lynchburg, Va., and New Orleans, La.) from Nicholas P. Trist concerning British attitudes toward slavery in the United States.

Harrison family papers, 1662–1915. 981 items. Mss1H2485a. Microfilm reels C262–264.
The first of several interrelated collections, this group of papers contains several clusters of like information—regarding clothing and the business of hiring. Some documents pertain to the distribution of various types of clothing (section 10, 1760s list; section 27, undated list; section 54, 1851 list; section 62, undated list). An 1822 bond for the hiring of Elsy is specific about the clothes to be provided and the kind of material used.

Correspondence of Robert T. Taylor provides a look at the business of hiring out slaves. His letters describe prices, quarterly payments, and rates of commission for 1860 and 1861 (section 49, Julia Taylor and Robert Taylor to B. Temple; section 51, Robert Taylor to B. Temple; section 61, Robert Taylor to Lucy Temple). A related item in section 32 is Robert Trice's 1844 letter to Elizabeth Chowning, describing his arrangements for having her slaves hired out, noting a special price for Betsy and her children because "her situation this year peculiarly requires that." In section 51, Taylor notes that a special clause occurs frequently in hiring contracts for that year—that slaves are to be returned to the owner in the event of civil war.

The collection also contains deeds and bills of sale for slaves. These are in section 19 (a 1760s document from Christ Church Parish), section 68 (Henrico County, 1824), section 69 (George Brand of Baltimore, Md., sold Daniel, who was born and raised in Virginia, 1815; and an 1822 deed for Abner), and section 74 (Caswell and John Poe bought Andrew, 1823). In section 44 are two statements of Elizabeth S. Temple concerning the sale of Joe (1846) and Berkley (1858), each of them being ungovernable and threatening to run to a free state; section 45 contains a letter of Walter V. Cranch to Temple concerning the sale of Joe in Richmond.

Harrison family papers, 1725–1907. 1,247 items. Mss1H2485c. Microfilm reels C407–410.
Much of this collection concerns Randolph Harrison (1769–1839) of Clifton plantation in Cumberland County. His bonds for slave hirings, 1824–1829, are in section 3, some of which are specific about clothes to be provided as part of the agreement and items to be deducted from the price of the hire. There is also an 1815 bond of Archer Harrison for hiring Ned (section 12).

Section 2 contains Randolph Harrison's loose accounts. They record costs of meals for slaves, slave sales (including an 1824 sale of Judy for eight barrels of corn), medical services, 1825–1831, provided by physician Abner Nash and Jonathan Trent, and hiring accounts. Two affidavits concerning fugitive slaves appear in section 5. An 1824 statement indicates that Randolph Harrison's slave Tom was picked up in Fredericksburg (including receipt for return costs); an 1829 affidavit states that John was apprehended in Cumberland, only one mile from Harrison's residence.

Harrison family papers, 1768–1908. 74 items. Mss1H2485b. Microfilm reel C407.
Correspondence and financial records of Benjamin Temple (1801–1872) of Spotsylvania County and materials of Dr. Jacob Prosser Harrison (1834–1908), Richmond physician, and other family members.

Letters of Julia A. Taylor and Robert T. Taylor of Richmond to their uncle, Benjamin Temple, provide an accounting for the hire of slaves belonging to their grandmother in the years 1860–1862 (section 3). Another letter of Robert T. Taylor to Charlotte Carter Temple in 1860 concerns the same matter (section 8).

An account book kept by Benjamin Temple, 1833–1871, concerns agricultural operations on plantations in several eastern Virginia counties and includes records concerning the hiring and labor of slaves and supplies provided to slave laborers and families (section 5). Two letters of Edgar B. Montague written to Elizabeth B. Chowning of Middlesex County in 1862 concern the hiring of Thom and his service with Montague while the latter fought with the Confederate States Army (section 10). The letters also discuss hiring practices in general and the safety of slaves while attending soldiers in the army.

Harrison family papers, 1791–1875. 19 items. Mss2H2489d.
Papers of members of the Harrison, Skipwith, and Ravenscroft families of Amelia, Lunenburg, and Mecklenburg counties. Include an 1844 letter of John P. Ballard (of Palmyra) to William Henry Harrison (of Wigwam, Amelia County) concerning his complaints about a slave who acted as a carriage driver on a trip between Wigwam and Richmond. Also, include a letter, 1793, of John Starke Ravenscroft to Lady Jean Skipwith concerning, in part, clothing made by his wife for slaves and their preparations for inhabiting the Spring Bank plantation in Lunenburg County.

Harrison family papers, 1802–1869. 130 items. Mss1H2485e. Microfilm reel C412.
Section 11 contains a statement, 6 May 1865, of Hazard, property of Lt. William Ellzey Harrison, CSA, concerning the arrangements ordered by Harrison for transportation and care of Harrison's horse and personal belongings during the evacuation of Petersburg. The presence of Union forces complicated Hazard's ability to carry out Harrison's orders as planned.

Harvie family papers, 1831–1913. 3,102 items. Mss1H2636c.
The papers of this Amelia County family shed light on work arrangements made by large landowners of the postbellum period. A significant body of material concerns agreements between Lewis Edwin Harvie and freedmen for working the farm in 1865 and 1866 (section 11), then contracting the farm work to German immigrants in the following years (contracts in section 10 for comparative purposes). Some of the freedmen's contracts provide for women and children to do housework, and one is for a blacksmith. (Section 40 includes an 1873 agreement of Joseph Willson with freedmen for farm labor.) Also in section 11 is an 1865 order of the Freedmen's Bureau, stating that under no circumstances may freedmen disobey their employer and that employers may require that laborers work several hours past sunset.

A letter from Thomas Freeman Epes encloses resolutions of the Bellefonte Grange #15 delineating those requirements that an African American must meet before a white man may sell or rent land to him (section 1). The resolutions provide commentary on African Americans' search for social equality and efforts to rise above manual labor.

Harwood family papers, 1774–1908. 544 items. Mss1H2664a.
Personal and business records of Thomas Seawell Harwood, Thomas G. Harwood, Walter C. Harwood, and Lucy E. Stubblefield Harwood of Airville, Gloucester County, and records of the mercantile firm of Thomas B. Rowe & Co. of Gloucester Court House. An 1854 agreement between Thomas G. Harwood and John P. Taliaferro (section 5) concerns the hiring of Sally Ann and the terms of her service.

Haxall family papers, 1768–1831. 113 items. Mss1H3203d.
Correspondence, accounts, and miscellaneous records of merchants William Haxall and Joseph Haxall of Petersburg. James Henderson writes in 1795 to Duncan Rose of Petersburg concerning negotiations for the sale of Clem to a potential buyer in Richmond and provides instructions to be passed on to Clem (section 3). In section 8, an 1822 agreement between William Haxall and Thomas Pegram concerns the care of Dinah, so that she will be "comfortable for the remainder of her life." A certificate of insurance, 1823, issued to Haxall by the Petersburg Marine Insurance Company covers the shipment of five slaves from Norfolk to New Orleans, listing the slaves by name and providing a valuation for each (section 8).

Haxall family papers, 1835–1920. 243 items. Mss1H3203c.
William Henry Haxall (1809–1888) and Bolling Walker Haxall (1814–1885) of Richmond figure prominently in this collection, especially among items of African American content. Bolling Haxall's account book for 1851–1883 (section 4) contains several lists of slaves held privately and in partnership. The lists vary; some have notations of hiring out or sale, deaths, occupations, or health impairments, and one note reports a slave as having run off to the Yankees. An 1865 account book (section 5) records accounts with freedmen for wages, and charges for clothes, shoes, and groceries.

William Haxall's correspondence, 1861–1867 (section 1), with Hector Harris of Bedford County follows the slave Henry, to whom the family has become attached after having hired him for several years. Harris cannot afford to buy Henry but investigates the possibility just the same. They also discuss the estate division of property, in particular, two unnamed girl slaves. In section 20 are two life insurance policies, 1860, issued by the Virginia Life Insurance Company of Richmond for Mary Jane and Austen, house servants of Mary Bell Moncure of Richmond.

Hays, James (1839–1888), papers, 1857–1888. 102 items. Mss1H3344a. Photocopies.
The collection is primarily correspondence between James Hays, a student at Emory and Henry College, and his mother, Emily Thompson (West) Hays, of The Cedars, Miss. In section 2, James Hays expresses his opinion of abolitionists (30 January 1859) and on John Brown (20 November 1859). In section 1 Emily Hays writes to her son, a Confederate soldier, about the death of Ambrose, a family slave who had died suddenly.

Hebrew Cemetery Company, Richmond, records, 1928–1946. 130 items. Mss4H3546b.
Primarily consists of financial accounts, 1928–1933 and 1939–1946, concerning the general operations of the cemetery at 5th and Hospital Streets in Richmond and the care of grave sites there. Also includes a letter, 1935, of Mrs. Alice H. Harris, supervisor of the Colored Recreation Association of Richmond, to Irving J. Straus (1881–1939), secretary of the company, concerning the activities of association members on cemetery property.

Heely, Edward, receipt, 1848. 1 p. Mss2H3605a1.
Issued to Thomas W. Crowder of Cumberland County for the medical care of a slave child.

Henderson, John (b. 1802), arithmetic book, 1817–1824. 230 pp. Mss5:4H3835:1.
John Henderson composed this notebook for his own use while teaching school in Spotsylvania County. In the back of the volume is a copy of an 1823 deed for 146 acres of land, appurtenances, and six slaves (by name only) from William Henderson to his children.

Henderson family papers, 1778–1830. 20 items. Mss2H3838b.
John Henderson served in the Virginia House of Delegates for Mason County (now in West Virginia). In 1813, he and John Cantrill distributed circular letters to their constituents summarizing the most recent session of the General Assembly (section 2). They reported that slave owners may move into Virginia and bring their slaves with them and that other provisions for making it easier to bring slaves into Virginia are under consideration. They discussed the bills for the new districts (now in West Virginia) that deliberately do not require congressional representatives to meet landholder qualifications, indicating concern that an African American could become a representative. Henderson adds that the militia, although created for defense during war, could also serve as a guard over slaves.

Henley, Bernard John (b. 1909), notes concerning artists, musicians, and writers in Richmond, comp. 1972. [16] leaves. Mss7:3N40H389:2.
Compiled from Richmond newspapers, 1858–1888. Concern Theodosia (Burr) Allston, Robert Armistead, Carter Nelson Berkeley, Frederick Nichols Crouch, Mittie F. C. (Point) Davis, Nellie Deans, Edwin Farmer, Lucy Virginia (Smith) French, John Jasper, Lucy T. Redd, [?] Schreiber, John F. Stith, and Adele Williams.

Henrico County, Court, papers, 1817–1820. 6 pp. Mss4V8a15. Typescript copy.
Pertain to the will of Izard Bacon of Henrico County in which he provides for the emancipation of his slaves as soon as the law allows for them to leave the state. Until then they are allowed to work for the benefit of the aged and infirm. Includes a hiring list with the slaves' names, ages, employers, health condition, cost of hire or keeping, and several births.

Henry family papers, 1763–1920. 1,085 items. Mss1H3968a. Microfilm reels C18 and C413.
Papers of Governor Patrick Henry, John Henry of Red Hill, Charlotte County, and William Wirt Henry, attorney and historian of Charlotte County and Richmond.

Section 1 includes a handwritten copy of a 1777 letter of Quaker Robert Pleasants of Curles Neck, Henrico County, to Patrick Henry concerning the abolition of slavery. Affidavits, 1845, by two neighbors of Edward Winston Henry concern the health of his former slave Anthony, recently "carried to the south" (section 7). John Henry compiled a "List of Negroes owned . . . at the time of the war & surrender," ca. 1865 (section 9).

An 1847 letter of Joel Watkins Marshall at Charlotte Court House to his father, James Pulliam Marshall, contains a letter to the elder Marshall by Caesar (in the hand of Joel Marshall) concerning his relatives and operations on the plantation (section 12). Two deeds, 1817 and 1830, cover the sale of Agness (of Lynchburg) and Caesar (of Charlotte County) to James Pulliam Marshall (section 15).

William Wirt Henry maintained an account book, 1857–1881. The first few pages of the volume contain a list of slaves belonging to Henry, with information on their ages, children, and the means by which Henry acquired them. After the Civil War, Henry used the book in part to record the employment of freedmen and women on his plantation in Charlotte County (section 21). A undated draft of an essay by Elizabeth Watkins (Henry) Lyons called "The Turning of the Sifter" concerns Huck, Ceasar, Lucinda, and African American plantation life at Red Hill, Charlotte County (section 38). An undated letter, ca. 1810, of Dr. Robert Burton to a Dr. Fontaine concerns the medical treatment of slaves and includes prescriptions (section 52).

A miscellaneous group of materials (section 56) includes an 1802 receipt of William Ross, of Mount Ida, Buckingham County, for the sale of Ned; a lengthy 1847 affidavit by Edward L. Palmer concerning the slave Felix of Halifax County; an 1853 appraisal of slaves belonging to the estate of George C. Friend of Charlotte County; and another 1817 deed concerning the slave Agness.

Hertford County, N.C., Sheriff, receipt, 1825. 1 p. Mss2K7474a1.
Receipt, 8 August 1825, issued to Mrs. Sarah Knight by R. G. Cowper, sheriff, for the payment of taxes on land and slaves for the year 1824.

Higginbotham, David (1775–1853), papers, 1811–1891. 414 items. Mss1H5354a.
Primarily personal and business correspondence of planter and merchant David Higginbotham of Morven, Albemarle County. Much of the correspondence is from family members, including a daughter, Frances (Higginbotham) Buckner, and her husband, Bernard Hooe Buckner, concerning their life in St. Louis, Mo., the move to a cotton plantation in Mississippi, and the acquisition and training of slaves. Also includes correspondence with another daughter, Elizabeth (Higginbotham) Fisher, and her husband, Richmond merchant George Daniel Fisher, in part concerning the appraisal and sale of Bob, a slave, and his family. Also included is a list of thirty-two slaves (with ages) owned by a son, Elmslie Higginbotham.

Higginbotham family papers, 1799–1865. 114 items. Mss1H5354b. Microfilm reels C468–469.
The Higginbotham papers consist primarily of letters, 1828–1862, written to Ann Estelle (Higginbotham) Hoskins (b. 1813) of Morven, Albemarle County, Va., and Philadelphia, Pa., by various family members. Topics discussed include slavery in general, as well as specific slaves at Morven and the local effect of Nat Turner's Insurrection of 1831.

Hightower, Scott Rex (b. 1952), "Genealogical Notes concerning the Hightower Family," 1972. [29] pp. Mss6:1H5385:1. Photocopies.
Notes include copies of African American slave birth registers, listing those slaves belonging to the Hightower family born between 1724 and 1750.

Hill, Ambrose Powell (1825–1865), papers, 1843–1864. 29 items. Mss1H5503a.
Papers concerning Hill's career while at the United States Military Academy, in the 1st United States Artillery Regiment, and in the Confederate States Army. Section 3 contains the correspondence, 1843–1864, of Hill including an 1850 letter to his brother, Edward Baptist Hill of Culpeper Court House, which, among other topics, expressed Hill's outrage toward the citizens of Culpeper following the mob-style lynching of a slave accused of killing a white man.

Hill, William, indenture, 1799. [3] pp. Mss2H5565a1.
Mortgage deed, dated 10 June 1799, to Christopher Tompkins, John Walker Semple, Isaac Robertson, and Edward Hill for thirty slaves and sixteen horses.

Hill family papers, 1787–1945. 4,375 items. Mss1H5565aFA2. Microfilm reels C334–337.
The papers of this Culpeper and Madison County family show the diversified interests of its members. Millwood plantation records reflect the family's agricultural ventures; various family members were active in education, the ministry, and medicine.

Material pertaining to the estate of Ambrose Powell Hill (1785–1858) are in box 2, filed under William A. Hill, the administrator for the estate, and include records of the division of slaves at Millwood in Madison County. In the same box are accounts and bonds of John Booton (1796–1845), including an 1823 bill of sale for Jacob and 1834 deeds for Daniel, Mary, and Ellen, property of James Hill. Tax records for 1832 to 1840 are incomplete but record the number of slaves taxed.

In box 7, Ann Powell Hill's "Miscellany" folder contains her contracts with freedmen, 1866–1871. These agreements make provisions for land, livestock, firewood, meal and bacon allotments. The contracts also designate holidays, conduct, clothing to be provided, clauses for time lost from work to include charge for board, type of work (field hand, cook, maid), and names of family members. In box 11 are two commonplace books, 1867–1872, of William Powell Hill (1844–1929) that record pay, days lost, and distribution of rations to workers.

Box 8 contains papers of Dr. William Alexander Hill, both a doctor and minister. In the folder "Baptist Church Materials" is a form from the State Mission Board asking Antioch Church to contribute $20 for 1887, Antioch Church then being an African American church at Culpeper Court House.

Papers of Albert Hudgins Hill (1866–1933) are in box 19. As a superintendent of Richmond public schools, he kept records pertaining to local education. An item dated 12 January 1917 discusses the concerns of African American teachers.

Hill family papers, 1831–1857. 8 items. Mss2H5568b.
Include records of the estate division of James Govan of Hanover County. A three-page list of slaves includes names, values, mothers, and a note that one slave has a hernia.

Hilldrup, Robert Pendleton (b. 1933), papers, 1969–1980. 1,541 items. Mss1H5568a.
This collection includes correspondence, reports, research notes, publicity materials, and school system publications compiled by Hilldrup as director of public information for the Richmond public school system. Materials concern school desegregation and busing for integration, among other topics. Section 4 in particular includes reports of community reaction to busing, legal information about busing, and correspondence of Hilldrup about the issue of busing.

Hite, Isaac (1758–1836), commonplace book, 1776–1859. 198 pp. Mss5:5H6375:1. Microfilm reel C518.
Isaac Hite kept a list of slaves in this commonplace book. The list runs several pages in length and records births, deaths, exchanges, prices, slaves given as gifts, and runaways. One page makes a note of several that had the measles. Birth and death dates are 1750 to 1850.

Hite family papers, 1768–1843. 43 items. Mss1H6375a.
Collection concerns the business and personal activities of members of the Hite, Bowman, and related families in Frederick and Shenandoah counties, Va. Section 3 includes accounts, 1779–1817, of Issac Bowman (1757–1826), in part, concerning costs for the capture and confinement of Frank, a runaway slave, in Hagerstown, Md. The section also includes an agreement, 1774, of Charles Beale and John Greathouse concerning a partnership as farmers and millers in Dunmore County (now Shenandoah County, Va.), including the use of slave labor. There is also a list, 1790–1839, of slaves, including birth and death dates.

Hobson, Anne Jennings Wise (1837–1914), diary, 1863–1865. [30] pp. Mss5:1H6537:1. Typescript copy. Restricted use.
Kept at Eastwood, Goochland County. Concerns, in part, problems with family servants, the fall of Richmond, the end of the Civil War, and the freeing of slaves.

Hobson, William (d. 1739), deed, 1738. 1 p. Mss2H6537a1.
Written in Northumberland County conveying six slaves to his daughter, Elizabeth Cary (Hobson) Hampton of Prince William County, including the names of three children and their parents.

Hoffman, Charles (1766–1825), account book, 1810–1849. [84] pp. Mss5:3H6755:1.
Kept by Charles Hoffman as a merchant in Suffolk and by his son, Charles F. Hoffman. Includes birth records of slaves.

Hoge family papers, 1804–1938. 1,695 items. Mss1H6795a. Microfilm reels C19–20.
Section 46 includes a three-page mimeographed typescript entitled "Negro Education in the City [of Richmond] Public Schools," 1905, in which Moses Drury Hoge writes his opinion on whether African Americans are by nature better suited for academic education or manual training.

Holladay family papers, 1728–1931. 2,318 items. Mss1H7185a. Microfilm reels C338–343.
This collection contains a variety of general records pertaining to slaves and freedmen affiliated with the Holladay family of Spotsylvania County. Among the earliest records is a tax assessor's book kept by Waller Holladay for Spotsylvania in 1798 (section 88). It records names of slaveowners and the number of taxable slaves by age groups from twelve to fifty. Section 94 contains lists of slaves and hiring records; a list of births begins with 1793 and continues to 1860; deeds and hiring records pertain to the years 1807 to 1818. Section 63 also contains birth lists beginning with 1762 for slaves owned by Lewis Holladay at Bellefonte. Dates and mothers' names are recorded for approximately fifty-five slaves. Also in section 63 is an undated generic guide of appraisal values by age and gender in Virginia currency (tobacco pounds). In section 104 is an 1843 affidavit stating the number of slaves (by age group) of Julia Ann Minor Holladay in Louisa County for tithable records.

As a justice of the peace, Lewis Holladay kept copies of legal records. Some of these concern legal action against slaves (section 58), including Major, property of Edward Hyde, for the murder of Ralph, property of David Sandidge (see entry below for more on this case). Other records pertain to slaves involved in estate divisions that were settled in chancery and appellate courts (section 95). An 1816 affidavit of Hugh Corran Boggs concerns Benjamin Carter and George Boxley hiring Aggy for 1816.

A slave insurrection implicating George Boxley is the subject of material in section 72 (see also Mss1H7185b, section 237), in particular a letter by Wilson Cary Nicholas to Waller Holladay. Boxley's plan for an insurrection is detailed by the examination of slaves' testimony; lists of slaves implicated are also included. Also in section 72 is a letter of Robert Powell in which he discusses the Virginia constitutional convention of 1829–1830, the chances of abolishing slavery, the possibility of restricting slaves' access to northern abolitionist publications, the need for more police, and government-subsidized African colonization.

Sections 126 to 129 consist of account books, 1866–1875, that record accounts with freedmen as farm laborers, noting days worked, days lost for attendence at political meetings, holidays, summaries of labor contracts, and shoes. In section 143 is an 1888 agreement providing for Izzie Coleman to work as a domestic servant for Lucy Daniel Lewis Holladay at Prospect Hill. Room and board are provided, along with wages, clothing, visitation privileges, and conditions for illness.

Holladay family papers, 1753–1961. 12,728 items. Mss1H7185b. Microfilm reels C343–357.
Additional papers of the Holladay family include a number of basic slave records, such as deeds and lists. In section 1 is a 1789 deed of Benjamin Holladay that includes Jean, Nelly, and Anthony, among other property. Section 51 contains lists of tithables, 1860, and an 1854 register of births going back to 1796 and notes of which slaves are assigned to the mill. Section 166 contains notes, 1847–1885, of James Minor Holladay of slave births, those removed to Texas, and assignments of weekly chores and routines. J. W. Holladay's account book, 1891–1899, in section 183, records chores, wages, and charges of laborers at Prospect Hill in Spotsylvania County. In section 241 is an 1812 hiring bond, a 1785 estate list of James Rawlings, and a permission slip for the slave George to dispose of twelve pounds of seed cotton.

A 1774 deed of trust that was not promptly recorded was the subject of a dispute that lasted several years in court. The deed of Elizabeth Lewis (Littlepage) Holladay to John Lewis concerned property that included the slaves Sylvia, Jenny, Delphy, Daphney, Phoebe, and Phyllis. The details of the case appear in the contents of sections 18 to 22. A copy of the deed of trust is in section 27. Sections 16 and 17 contain other legal material pertaining to slaves, in particular charges of theft, receipt of stolen goods, arson, and a 1799 report describing the murder of the slave Ralph by another slave, Major.

Section 237 contains May 1816 letters of Stapleton Crutchfield concerning George Boxley's escape from jail. (Boxley was implicated in the April 1816 uprising of slaves in Spotsylvania and surrounding counties. See also Mss1H7185a, section 72.) In the same section Henry Tatterson writes to Amy, 1845, about his attempts to buy her from her master, Mr. Holladay. Tatterson also reassures Amy of his love and reminds Jack to help care for Tatterson's son.

Notes of Waller Holladay (folder 7 of section 57), dated 1858, state that an inspection of various parts of the slave cabins is sufficient but inspections of the blankets are unnecessary; treatment of slaves should not be harsh, nor should they be made to work in rain or plow wet soil; some need extra time to get to work, because of age or distance. In section 114 is J. M. Holladay's 1857 correspondence with Dr. J. W. Minor of Albemarle County that relates news from the colony in Liberia, in particular the names of mutual acquaintances who have died. Section 30 includes Waller Holladay's correspondence with Dr. George Dillard, enclosing medical fees for the slaves Julius and Lucy (1859–1860).

In September 1864, J. M. Holladay requested information concerning the sale price of certain slaves from Hill, Dickinson & Co. of Richmond (section 114). The response was that the slaves were unsellable on the Richmond market. Enclosed was a summary of current prices for slaves by age, gender, health, and family groups.

Box 24 contains a number of small, pocket-size account books of James Minor Holladay (1823–1891). These are labeled sections 124–144. Generally, the books record attendance at work, wages, charges, and some miscellaneous accounts for farm laborers from 1865 to 1887. Section 167 contains an April 1865 general order of the United States Army of the Potomac prescribing appropriate conduct of former slaves and their rights and responsibilities and providing for the establishment of an agent to oversee employment of former slaves, the registration of freedmen, and the restriction on former slaves from removing to urban areas.

Holladay family papers, 1787–1968. 141 items. Mss1H7185c. Microfilm reel C358.
In this related collection is a series of letters, 1813, of Dr. Richmond Lewis to Lewis Holladay concerning the details of medical treatment for Jeffrey, a slave of Holladay. The correspondence is in section 1.

Holladay family papers, 1804–1938. 1,786 items. Mss1H7185g.
Mainly correspondence and accounts of the Holladay family of Prospect Hill, Spotsylvania County. Section 3 contains an 1862 affidavit of Alexander Richmond Holladay, concerning the sale of a male slave. Section 7 contains a number of letters written to Eliza Lewis Holladay concerning African Americans, including communications from Ann Elizabeth (Holladay) Poindexter (concerning the enclosed notes of her husband, Dr. William Quarles Poindexter, about the number of slaves he employed in 1850, and the slavery question); Dr. William Quarles Poindexter (concerning his feelings of awkwardness in living in a society with freedmen); and Virginia W. (Minor) Rawlins (concerning the sale of her slave, Moses). Section 12 contains the correspondence, 1854–1904, of Lucy Daniel (Lewis) Holladay of Spotsylvania County. Among her correspondents are Charlotte A. Armstrong (concerning Mrs. Armstrongs desire for her slaves to migrate to Liberia and her wish to visit Africa) and Margaret Campbell (Miller) Holladay (concerning the behavior of servants after 1865). Section 14 contains the correspondence of Virginia Watson Holladay (1829–1888) of Spotsylvania County. Correspondents include Francis Addison Hill (a school teacher writing about domestic life and a case of arson in 1853); Mary Jane (Boggs) Holladay (concerning John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry [now W. Va.]); and Rebecca Ann (Holladay) Willis (referring to selling slaves in 1859). Section 18 contains the correspondence, 1880–1914, of John Waller Holladay (1864–1914), including a letter from his wife, Mary Caroline (Harris) Holladay, that makes references to a female servant.

Holland family papers, 1831–1862. 51 items. Mss2H7195b.
In the papers of this Franklin County family is an 1839 pass for nine male slaves to visit their home in Franklin County. The slaves were in the employ of Lewis and Shrewsbury, Kanawha Salines, in Kanawha County (now Malden, W.Va.).

Hood Temple Male Chorus, Richmond, sound recording, “A Celebration of Praise,” 1994. 1 sound cassette. Mss15H7617a.
This recording was made at Hood Temple AME Zion Church in Richmond on 14 October 1994 and features nine gospel songs.

Hooe, Bernard, authorization, 1827. 1 p. Mss2H7614a1. Typescript copy.
Authorization, dated 7 June 1827, Bentsville, to Peyton Norvell to remove from the plantation of Mrs. Sarah E. Lee in Fairfax County a slave woman inherited by Mrs. Thomas Moncure from Sarah Chichester.

Hore, Elias A. W. (b. 1820), account book, 1843. [336] p. Mss5:3H7817:1.
This volume, kept by Hore presumably as a deputy sheriff in Stafford County, includes an alphabetical list of local tax payers and the property on which taxes were levied. Also, contains a list of free African Americans in Hore’s district of the county.

Horne family papers, 1840–1878. 25 items. Mss2H7839b.
Mainly the papers of the Horne family of Hanover County. Section 2 contains a deed of sale for two slaves, Mana and Judith, involving Hudson M. Wingfield and Polly V. Cross.

Horner, Inman (1791–1860), papers, 1817–1858. 24 items. Mss2H7847b.
A receipt, 1829, of John Florance to Thomas C. Roach concerns the slave Chloe, a slave for life, warranted to be sound.

Hundley, Henry Watkins, account book, 1923–1933. 568 pp. Mss5:3H8925:1.
Kept at Dennistown Junction, Halifax County. A page near the back contains the beginnings of a list of slave births, with only two names; only Griffin's birthdate is recorded (1841).

Hundley family papers, 1817–1900. 80 items. Mss1H8928a. Photocopies.
The papers of this Essex County family include a February 1857 pass for Ben to visit his unnamed wife (section 4), issued by Larkin Hundley. In section 2 is a letter of Robert E. Lee to the presiding justice of Essex County (Hundley) requesting fifty free male African Americans to work on fortifications in Richmond, according to an act of the Virginia legislature passed 12 February 1863.

Hunter, Dangerfield (d. 1856), will, 1856. 1 p. Mss2H9167a1. Typescript copy.
A will of a slave belonging to Louis Abraham Pauly of Augusta County. Hunter died 20 November 1856 at age seventy-five. His will was written 18 June of the same year. He distributed his possessions among friends and relatives; the articles consisted of furniture, clothes, kitchen utensils, and domestic fowl.

Hunter, George Lawrence (1903–1984), papers, 1948–1975. 113 items. Mss1H9173a.
Collection consists of correspondence and related materials compiled by George Lawrence Hunter while commissioner of revenue for the city of Fredericksburg, concerning his activities as a member of and local leader in the Virginia Democratic Party. Section 1 contains correspondence of Hunter with U.S. Senator Harry Flood Byrd, Sr., 1948–1960, concerning, in part, the African American vote in Fredericksburg.

Hunter family papers, 1766–1918. 4,070 items. Mss1H9196aFA2. Microfilm reels C251–258.
This Essex County family owned Hunter's Hill and Fonthill plantations. The volume of pertinent material in this collection is considerable, and the finding aid (available from the reference librarian) is essential to locating materials. Many of the basic types of slave records can be found in the collection, from deeds and bills of sale to hiring bonds. Slave lists abound in estate records and in commonplace books. Account books and ledgers scrupulously record time worked, wages paid, and items charged to laborers' accounts.

Of special interest is a series of letters by Margaret Mercer to Martha Fenton Hunter (1800–1866), located in box 22. The correspondence covers the 1830s and 1840s; Mercer writes from Maryland, and her letters are full of newsy tidbits, one of her subjects being her servant Tom and his three children. She would like to send them to Liberia, but he is reluctant to go. She expresses her opinions of abolitionists and how her slaves in the South should be managed.

There are several anomalies that should be noted. The estate papers, 1804–1811, in Moscoe Garnett Hunter's "Miscellany" section (box 5) concern slaves of William Garnett; the bondspeople are referred to generally, and none is mentioned by name. An 1815 bill of sale in the same section lists Rachel and her four children. Another unusual item is a three-page 1849 circular in box 15, among Robert M. T. Hunter's congressional materials (folder 1). Printed as an annual meeting statement for the Religious Society of Friends of Great Britain and Ireland, it concerns attitudes toward slavery and the slave trade among British people. Also in box 15 is a section of essays, including a sixteen-page essay offering Hunter's opinion of freedmen's participation in state and national politics during Reconstruction.

Box 19 contains Mary Evalina (Dandridge) Hunter's Fonthill plantation papers. Some 1862 passes in that group were issued not so much for permission to travel as to have cloth made. Sally Hunter's "Farming Materials" in box 28 contain lists of hirings and distribution of supplies and rations for 1843 to 1862. In addition to births, deaths, and mother-children groups, Hunter also noted which persons had measles and mumps, especially on the late 1850s lists. Her records of gifts and supplies are fairly detailed about clothing, such as calicos, flannels, petticoats, old dresses, bonnets, and aprons. Lists of distribution of supplies and loose accounts, some for medical services, and records of freedmen's hours and wages are numerous and can be located through the collection's finding aid.

Hunter family papers, 1768–1928. 1,072 items. Mss1H9196b.
The Hunter family collection contains correspondence, accounts, legal papers, commonplace books, school notebooks, and miscellany of the Hunter and related Garnett families of Essex County and the Stevens family of Hoboken, N.J. The collection includes scattered references to African Americans from 1780 to 1868. In section 2, the correspondence of James Hunter (1746–1788), a merchant and supplier to the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, contains a letter from Brig. Gen. George Weedon mentioning the slaves left behind by the British when they evacuated Portsmouth in 1780, while a letter from Hunter’s business partner John Banks describes the sale of his slave Paris in 1782. In section 5, a letter from Marianna Hunter to her nephew James Hunter (1774–1826) concerns the hiring out of her slaves Milly, Betty, and "Aunty" because of financial difficulties. Section 8 includes a receipt for medical services rendered by Dr. Alexander Somervail for Martha "Patsy" Taliaferro Hunter and also for her African American slaves.

Section 10 contains a bill of sale conveying J. William Garnett's slave Rachel and her children to Muscoe Garnett Hunter (1779–1818). In Section 13, the correspondence of Jane Swann Hunter (1804–1880), a sister of Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter (1809–1887), includes an 1840 letter from James Roy Micou, Jr., regarding the sale of an overcoat to Jane’s slave "Old Joe," and also includes a medical bill for him, and an 1868 letter from Florentina Isidora (Moreno) Garnett discussing African American farm workers at Cedar Hill in Hanover County.

Robert M. T. Hunter served in the Virginia legislature and the U.S. Congress before the Civil War. Several sections of his papers reference African Americans. Section 15 contains an 1833 letter from W. Braden reporting an offer by Col. Williams and John Branch, Jr., to purchase slaves William, Henry, Arthur, and George from James Mercer Garnett and Maria (Hunter)Garnett and discusses the Florida Territory’s tax on slaves of non-residents. The same section includes an 1865 letter from E. D. Bean of the Office of Support of Freedmen requesting Hunter to allow an African American woman to remain at his home until she can find housing. Continuing in section 16, Hunter corresponds with the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands in 1866, responding to claims by his former slaves Milly and Emily that they deserve aid because Hunter did not provide clothes for them. Hunter’s personal legal papers in section 19 contain slave lists from 1862 and 1864.

Section 30 contains a letter to Martha "Pink" Taliaferro Hunter (1841–1909) from a "Cousin M," who describes events in Richmond on 3 April 1866, which included "a grand fandango" held by the African Americans of the area, racial disturbances between whites and blacks, and an account of having tea with two African American women.

Hunter family papers, 1802–1907. 330 items. Mss1H9196c.
This collection consists of the papers of the Moses T. Hunter family of Winchester and the related Alfred C. Weeks family of Bell Grove near New Iberia, St. Martin’s Parish, La. Section 2 contains letters between Nancy Weeks and her husband, Alfred C. Weeks, discussing relations between them and their slaves (letter of 24 December 1853 discusses stopping sugar production at the behest of Weeks’s slaves because it was Christmas Eve). Section 3 includes letters concerning Alfred C. Weeks's loss of slaves, as well as his confidence in the Confederacy’s desire to protect slavery in future. An undated letter from Mary Weeks discusses slaves' behavior and her hope they will remain loyal. Postwar items include a letter of May 1867 complaining of freedmen's "depridations" on livestock; a letter of April 1868 mentions African American suffrage. The collection also contains an account book, 1862, belonging to Alfred C. Weeks, apparently containing names of slaves Weeks took with him to Texas during the Civil War and including a record of money paid to him for the hire of slaves. Section 6 includes a bill of sale for slaves from Dunwick Hicks to Nathan Swayze.

Huntington, William (1793–1867?), papers, 1808–1856. 143 items. Mss1H9262a. Microfilm reel C414.
In this collection of papers of a New England merchant and schoolteacher is a diary, 1839–1841 (section 1), containing several entries pertaining to Huntington's lay ministry to the slaves at Retirement in Charlotte County. This ministry is best documented in the first few months of 1839 and is mostly noted by dates on which he spoke to a gathering of the slaves and the scriptural text for his sermons. An entry for 10 February records his visit to an enfeebled old woman in her slave cabin who seeks salvation. He also notes the slaves' disappointment that he was unable to speak to them on 14 February.

Huntley, Elizabeth Gray Valentine Thomas (1902–1947), commonplace books, ca. 1930–1934. 3 v. Mss5:5H9265:1–3.
Kept in Richmond by Elizabeth Huntley. Volume III comprises biographical notes concerning African Americans, including Edward Coleman, Phylis (Terry) Coleman, Daniel Stewart, and Mrs. Lavinia Stewart.

Hutchison family papers, 1807–1918. 1,408 items. Mss1H9754a.
In the papers of this Craig County family is a letter to George W. Hutchison from Charles S. Scheaffer, a representative of the Bureau of Freedmen, Refugees, and Abandoned Lands (section 1). It states that Milton Green Burks, an African American, has complained of Hutchison for payment of wages from 9 April to 25 December 1865 and itemizes what he has received in compensation to date (clothing). Schaeffer requires Hutchison to settle the balance of the debt. In section 17, accounts concerning the administration of Martin Hutchison's estate include a hiring bond for Ed, dated December 1864. Section 19 includes two printed tax receipts, 1861 and 1862, for the estate of William Taylor; the forms differ in that the 1861 form includes a tax rate for slaves over age twelve and the 1862 form includes a tax rate for free male blacks over age twenty-one.

Updated June 4, 2009